Two linked Mediterranean civilizations: Spain, Calabria

Self-portrait of the Painter Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez

31.7.2021

The areas of Calabria where the Spanish took root most were, in the past, those that were united to the crown of Spain, such as the whole of southern Italy, where Spanish rule lasted for four hundred years in two different eras, from 1442 to 1707 and from 1734 to 1859.

The least important cultural legacy is certainly the food and wine one, the most important is the language and some traits of good manners and particularly hospitable customs of the Calabrian people.

Already in the second half of the thirteenth century, as a result of the Sicily Vespers revolution, many Catalans (Spaniards from Catalonia, the region of Barcelona) joined the mercenary army that was then formed in Italy. Following the influx of these mercenaries, which should not have been small, a first group of Spaniards was formed who were pressing on the borders of the South, if already in 1305 Roberto d’Angiò entered Florence with a gang of three hundred Aragonese knights and Catalans.

Coast of Catalonia

It was the conflict with the Spaniards of Aragon that strengthened the presence of this population in Calabria and in the South of Italy. Already at the time of Charles II (1285-1309), predecessor of Robert of Anjou, also due to the great economic and mercantile power and prestige that the city of Barcelona had acquired, the Catalans had been allowed to have their “Consuls“. In fact, it is no mystery that the so-called Rua Catalana in Naples dates back to this era, a street so called because it was inhabited by Catalans, especially merchants, who settled in the capital in those years.

After a long war, which ended with the victory of Alfonso I (V of Aragon) and with the expulsion of Renato d’Angiò, in 1442 the Angevins left southern Italy giving way to the Aragonese dynasty. Alfonso I of Aragon was one of the main promoters of the culture of the Renaissance, and loved to surround himself with Italian enlightened people with whom he discussed literature and philosophy. It was he who encouraged the immigration of Catalan Spaniards. The cultural climate promoted during the reign of Alfonso was characterized by the establishment in 1443 of the Accademia Alfonsina, the first academy in Italy, which was later called Pontaniana. Alfonso I never learned Italian well, but he always continued to write and speak in Catalan and especially in Castilian, since he was the son of a Castilian prince and had been raised at the court of Henry III.

During the reign of this sovereign, there was a high Spanish immigration, similar to that which had already occurred in Sicily, and much more consistent than that which occurred at the time of the court of Robert of Anjou.

Alphonse I

FAMILY TIES AND SPANISH FEUDS

The new immigrants soon formed kinship ties with the families of the kingdom which also included Calabria: entire families settled in the Calabrian region acquiring fiefs and kin, many other Spaniards were employed in the administration, and numerous were also the prelates who came from Spain, together with peasants, artisans, employees, shopkeepers, as evidenced by the coupons of the royal treasury.

The nobles of the time were, as mentioned, mostly Catalans and Catalans were entrusted with the most important posts in the administration of the kingdom. Such an influx of Spaniards, on the one hand, strengthened Calabrian feudality, which had already undergone a strong boost during the Angevin domination, but also the mixing of the local language with Spanish. With Alfonso I the language of the court and of the chancellery became Catalan and so until 1480. Since then the influence of Spanish in the social life of southern Italy was evident in the parties and entertainment, in the fascinating and overwhelming gallantry of the costume, in the show of clothes and mounts.

Gallantry of the costume (Las Meninas, Velazquez, 1656)

At his court all the vernacular literature was in Castilian, since, the king ignoring the Italian language, he never encouraged indigenous literary production; In fact, many poets and writers followed him from Spain, who, in some cases, came into contact with our humanists.

In fact, literature in the Italian vernacular was not part of the entertainment of the court of the time, largely Spanish, which was colonized by the Hispanic tradition, until the influence was moderated by new historical facts. In fact, with the death of Alfonso I in 1458, the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily returned to divide and in Calabria the son of Alfonso, Ferrante d’Aragona, ascended the throne. Well, with the division of the kingdom the migratory flow from Spain slowed down, and indeed in some cases many of those who had followed Alfonso in the new conquered lands returned to Spain.

Perhaps it was also that Ferrante following the advice of his father on the verge of death, who would have recommended that he remove all the Aragonese and Catalans from himself and seek the support of the Italians, that he sought the support of the local people more than he had done in the past the same father and the importance of the Catalans was thus reduced.

During his reign, the Italianisation of the Aragonese grew considerably, and not infrequently the local nobles entered the administration and were also the king’s ministers.

However, the Spanish element did not regress to the point of definitively leaving everyday life, both for social and dynastic ties that still very closely linked the city to the Spanish language and culture.

The Spanish treasury coupons continued to be drawn up in Catalan for many years, just as Catalan and Castilian remained the languages of the court. Although Ferrante was not, like his father, a lover of literature, Spanish literature did not completely disappear from the culture of the time, as evidenced by the large number of Spanish poetry books from the libraries of the barons of the time.

The Spanish in the south not only fascinated the population for their gallantry and their courteous ways, they also introduced very resistant culinary traditions. The spicy Calabrian “sopressata” is very similar to the Catalan “sopressada“, for those who have the opportunity to take a look to this in Figuerez (near Girona) or in Barcelona at a traditional Spanish grocery.

The typical chorizo or sobresada

THE SPANISH LANGUAGE IN THE CALABRIAN DIALECT

Even when in 1502, at the end of the struggles between the Spanish and the French for the lands of southern Italy, Naples and a large part of southern Italy was annexed to the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic and the viceroy was established, the numerous viceroys who succeeded each other, for almost two centuries, until the end of the following century, they rarely abandoned their mother tongue during their short stay and surrounded themselves with a court of their compatriots; this meant that until the beginning of the eighteenth century the Spanish language was part of everyday life, making its influence felt both in the context of social and cultural customs.

In these years, the Spanish of the time remained the language of the court and of the chancellery, but not the one in which the laws were promulgated (which were drafted in Spanish and Catalan only in Sardinia), for which Italian was used, although it existed the custom of kings and viceroys to have you insert formulas in Spanish.

Among the upper classes of society, the wealthy often tried their hand at speaking the Spanish language, considering this behavior a sign of affection and loyalty towards their rulers.

During the short Austrian viceroyalty (1707-1733), Spanish remained the official language, and with the restoration of the Spanish monarchy with Charles III, the use of Castilian was strengthened as the language of the chancellery, in which it was used equally with the Italian.

Sobresada inside a grocery in Spain

Charles III, although born of a French and an Italian, preferred to speak Castilian; his court was in fact frequented by numerous soldiers and employees who had arrived from Spain, and by gentlemen who had spent the years of Austrian rule in Spain, fighting alongside Philip V.

During the years of Bourbon rule, this tradition gradually waned, as contacts between the Spaniards and the mother country became more and more sparse and the Spanish immigration to Italy became more and more contained.

The education policy of the Bourbons contributed to the spread of the teaching of Italian and, in the wake of a trend that was taking hold throughout Europe in the eighteenth century, the French language made its way to the detriment of Spanish.

Nevertheless, the linguistic traces that almost four centuries of Spanish domination in the whole of southern Italy have left in the local dialect are numerous and very interesting.

THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AS A TIE BETWEEN SPAIN AND CALABRIA

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, Calabria flourished in its trade towards the rest of Europe, thanks to the Spanish presence.

The condition of the coasts had not allowed the creation of large ports, also because the Spanish government had prohibited the sailors from the long course and the handling of large ships, however the maritime trade found its implementation thanks to the presence of numerous landings that favored transshipment and cabotage. The Calabrians became skilled sea transporters and, despite the difficulties mentioned above, the merchants of Scilla, for example, managed to establish relations with Venice and Trieste, and from those ports the exchanges continued for regions such as the Tyrol, the Istria and Dalmatia, while the sailors of Parghelia, gathered since 1692 in a cooperative society of mutual assistance called “Monte delli marinari di Parghelia“, carried out maritime trade outside the borders of the Kingdom.

The Spanish monarchy continued to build a bureaucratic structure, to give a modern organization to the Kingdom, and the demography, productivity, trade and the whole economy expanded; the already rigid and poorly articulated social structure was enriched with the emergence of new classes and a bourgeoisie.

Spanish battleship

In Calabria, therefore, the advances linked to maritime trade, on the one hand, historically unite forever, across the Mediterranean, the great Spanish and Calabrian civilizations, – on the other hand, these advances are modest during the Spanish presence, if one thinks of the gigantic steps forward that are being made towards a rapid start of political, economic and social renewal in the other European states and in central-northern Italy itself.

The Calabrian South, in fact, remains linked in those centuries of Spanish presence, to the slowness of an evolution, which through the plague of misery, faces the serious problems of the continuous social disintegration, malaria, the inclement climate and fragility of the society.

Throughout the seventeenth century, the history of Calabria was nothing more than a succession of banditry episodes, of Turkish pirate incursions, of city fights against corrupt administration and nobles reaction; and it will be necessary to wait until 1647 and the Masaniello revolution to experience a widespread attempt to achieve a political and administrative order different from that imposed by the Spanish viceroys and their dishonest provincial representatives.

Spanish vessel, galleon

However, overall the historical action carried out during two centuries by Spain in Naples was of exceptional importance and took the form of laying the foundations of the modern state in the South, that is, in the effort it made there to organize the same type of centralized and absolutist power. which distinguishes the Western European states of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. When the events of international politics made Spain move away from Naples in 1707 and allowed a short period of subjection of the Kingdom from the Viennese branch of the Habsburg dynasty, which in 1734 will lead to the restoration of Neapolitan independence – it will be seen that the South, even with all the age-old problems of disintegration, poverty and backwardness that afflict its political-social life and the economy, is, however, a country that is anything but poor in internal energies: a country that, within a few decades, will be able to face a profound effort of renewal and to express a culture and a political staff of European importance, proving that two centuries of hard labor in the shadow of the throne of a foreign dynasty had not passed in vain and that the Kingdom of 1734 was not more neither that of 1501 nor that of 1647/48.

A DEEP LINK WITH SPAIN: GOOD FRIDAY IN DAVOLI AND “A ‘NACA”

There is a religious rite that has been handed down in Davoli since the seventeenth century and is absolutely a legacy of the Spanish domination. We are talking about Holy Week, the week preceding the Resurrection of our Lord after having lived the Passion. With Good Friday all the towns and villages of Calabria carry on the rites that came to us from the Spanish “potentiores” during their domination …

Since the seventeenth century the small but suggestive Borgo di Davoli is preparing to live this exciting and little known tradition with a long preparation that lasts weeks. In the weeks before, it is the young people of the town who gather where possible to create their works of art: the fir trees loaded with rudimentary lights called “the lampiune”. Bringing the fir tree for a young man from Davoli is a really exciting thing to try at least once in a lifetime. Each light that shines in the night could represent the light of our soul that is freed from sin with the Resurrection of Christ. There are dozens of fir trees that are prepared in advance to accompany the procession of the dead Christ.

But let’s get into the heart of the tradition, the faithful gather before 22.00 at the Church of San Pietro to prepare for this particular procession defined: a naca. It is not difficult to guess the etymology of the name “naca” probably derives from the dialect and in particular from the verb “annacare” which means to move while swinging; Indeed, the rites of Spanish origin then took the Calabrian terms as in this case. However, someone thinks that the dialect word derives from the Greek nachè, which means cradle, in which the body of Jesus rests. Both etimologies can be taken into consideration!

The silent and sad funeral procession is composed to cross the village enveloped by the night, the statues of the dead Christ and the Addolorata parade in mourning always manage to reunite many people year after year. The notes of the funeral march and the gaunt rhythm of the drum and trumpet mark the pained step of the faithful, in memory of the Via Crucis of Christ. Immediately after, the bearers of these fir trees full of lights and with a swinging trend are placed. The procession starts with the sound that warn the faithful that the naca goes out through the streets of Davoli, it passes through the parishes of Santa Barbara and Santa Caterina, as well as in front of the various Calvaries scattered among the different areas of the village. Faith and legend come together for this event!

Naca in Davoli (CZ, Calabria Italy)

Many legends handed down by the elderly tells that they were used as torches some spontaneous plants called “varvasche” and one year the procession took place during a stormy night; the storm was so strong that it damaged the statue and the torches. A few lights remained on and were collected and placed on a fir tree found along the way. From that moment on, the custom of hanging street lamps on fir trees would have arisen “.

The feast of “Naca”, concluding his charismatic journey and returning to the Church of San Pietro, can give us the emotional sensation that Spain lives yet in Calabria, a sensation difficult to forget every year…a real Spanish tradition!

Mediterranean life style: Calabria

27.3.2021

Calabria is a land whose even daily culture owes a lot to the Mediterranean lifestyle of the Greeks who constituted wonderful colonies here more than two and a half millennia ago.

To maintain control of navigation on the Strait and the predominance of the circulation of goods, the Chalcidians soon occupied the site of Zancle (now Messina), in Sicily, and then that of Reggio, in Calabria. The other possible route to reach the Tyrrhenian traffic from the south involved the circumnavigation of Sicily, crossing the Strait of Sicily, which was very dangerous due to the shallows (shallow waters). Syracuse’s Greeks, therefore, to guard this route too, founded Camarina, which overlooked the canal.

Kamarina Ruins

From these dark beginnings, almost 2500 years ago, the real start of one of the most splendid cultures of the Mediterranean basin, Magna Graecia, with its perennial conquests for Western and world culture: philosophy, mathematics, science, art and style of Mediterranean life …

MEDITERRANEAN LIFESTYLE, CHARACTERS COMMON WITH THE GREEK LIFESTYLE

Today as then, talking about the Mediterranean and Calabria is talking about a great civilization that has not yet exhausted its impulse toward a magnific and perennial lifestyle, even in our hectic and polluted metropolises.

A style that is attentive to the dignity of people, of everyone, old and poor, rich and children … Everyone is loved, cared for and preferred for their personal characteristics, not for the public offices they hold, but for their ability to live and to love life.

The poors share in the beauty of common living, in the grace and kindness of this poor but kind and hospitable land. If someone is part of a family he is honored as a relative and friend and if he can benefit the city, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition.

Everyone deals with everyone in public affairs as well as in daily activities, perhaps drawing criticism of being a bit patronizing and accommodating, but … never getting too angry with one’s neighbor, … paying obedience to power and laws, but still considering the injustice as a shame of all.

Grace of Calabrian Style

However, where the grace and kindness of the Calabrian people shines is in the attention and style in enjoying the food, the wine, the excellent fruits of the earth. In this way the Calabrians, like the ancient Greeks, procure many opportunities for recreation from fatigue, for their spirit, since festivals and ritual and religious festivals are celebrated all year round.

The houses, however poor they may be, always have some nice corner and a simple and elegant furniture, whose daily enjoyment removes discouragement from the inevitable evils of life.

The earth is kissed by the sun almost all year round and this explains why all kinds of products from the fields arrive in the city, which local craftsmanship then knows how to use in a refined and varied gastronomy.

Elegance and sobriety

Now consider how much the description of this lifestyle is quite similar to that exposed by Pericles, in his famous epitaph to the fallen in war, about the Athenians and the Greeks in general …

[From: Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, book II]

…yet in conferring of dignities one man is preferred before another to public charge, and that according to the reputation, not of his house, but of his virtue; and is not put back through poverty for the obscurity of his person, as long as he can do good service to the commonwealth. And we live not only free in the administration of the state, but also one with another void of jealousy touching each other’s daily course of life; not offended at any man for following his own humour, nor casting on any man censorious looks, which though they be no punishment, yet they grieve. So that conversing one with another for the private without offence, we stand chiefly in fear to transgress against the public; and are obedient always to those that govern and to the laws, and principally to such laws as are written for protection against injury, and such unwritten, as bring undeniable shame to the transgressors. (Book II, 37)

We have also found out many ways to give our minds recreation from labour, by public institution of games and sacrifices for all the days of the year, with a decent pomp and furniture of the same by private men; by the daily delight whereof we expel sadness. We have this farther by the greatness of our city, that all things from all parts of the earth are imported hither; whereby we no less familiarly enjoy the commodities of all other nations, than our own. (Book II, 38).

A BIT OF HISTORY: THE GREEK IN APULIA, CALABRIA, SICILY, CAMPANIA

The unparalleled importance of the Mediterranean lifestyle introduced by the Greeks in Calabria, Italy and the world, begins with the Greek colonization in this land, but also in Apulia, Sicily and Campania.

For Apulia, it all began with the search for a shelter for the routes, which the Greeks found in the other large gulf of Southern Italy, the gulf of Taranto, whose name derives from the colony of the same name founded on the Apulian coasts by the Spartans. Metaponto also arose at a distance of a few kilometers from Taranto, overlooking the gulf. In any case, despite being a territory rich in resources, not far from the motherland and suitable for cultivation, Puglia was not a happy destination for colonial expeditions, with the exception of Taranto, because it was populated by the fierce Làpigi, already well known to Mycenaean merchants.

Ruins in Sybaris

The search for fertile lands in a strategic position, on the southern coast of the peninsula, led the Greeks, therefore, to look for some safe bases in the river valleys, such as those of Calabria, in Sybaris, still considered today the oldest of the Achaean colonies . Sybaris was founded in an uninhabited area between the mouths of two rivers, in a plain suitable for agriculture but devoid of indigenous settlements due to frequent floods.

Another example is the foundation of Acragante, in Sicily, between two rivers and four kilometers from the sea: the ancients said that it had all the advantages of a maritime city.

Even more important for Greek colonization is Ischia, the first outpost in Campania for Greek merchants looking for iron and eager to sell their terracotta pots.

THE FOUNDATION OF REGGIO CALABRIA AND OF THE MEDITERRANEAN STYLE OF LIFE

The millenary history of Reggio Calabria, on the other hand, is very important for the birth of an authentically Greek lifestyle in the West and begins with its foundation as a Greek colony in the eighth century BC. The history of Reggio Calabria is even at the origins of the name Italy and its culture, the cradle of world civilization.

In fact, the locality of Reggio was called Pallantion and was inhabited by the “Itali“, a nucleus of the Sicilian people who had not crossed the Strait and had settled permanently in the territory corresponding to the current province of Reggio. They were therefore called Itali in honor of their great King Italo, son of Enotrio, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes; and the territory in which they were settled had assumed the geographical name of “Italy”, as confirmed by Thucydides and Virgil.

The name of Italy then included the whole of Calabria, and in Roman times it was extended to all the colonized peoples of the current Italian peninsula, who were called “Gentes Italicae“.

Riace bronzes (Reggio Calabria museum)

The date of the foundation of Reggio was set for July 14 in the year 730 BC. according to the studies carried out by the historians Prof. Pasquale Amato and Mons.Nunnari, confirmed by the French historian Georges Vallet, on numerous ancient historical texts, including Thucydides, it clearly emerges that around this date the Chalcidians founded the colony of Rhegion, this is also reliable considering that the boats of the era could sail in complete safety only in the spring-summer period.

The Greek historians Thucydides and Diodorus Siculus (XIII, 23) narrate how the oracle of Delphi had indicated to the colonists where to found the new city.

Following the oracle, when the settlers stopped near the promontory of Punta Calamizzi at the mouth of the Apsìas river (the current Calopinace river), having glimpsed a vine clinging to a wild fig in the locality called Pallantion (the current “fortino a mare “or” temple “), they decided to settle in that place, founding, perhaps (as mentioned), the first Greek (polis) in Calabria.

The oldest coin minted by the city testifies to the sacredness of the river, depicting a bull with a human face, which in classical iconography represents the personification of rivers.

The new city took the name of Rhegion. The term is referred in ancient sources to the verb “regnumi”, which means to break, in memory of the geological split of Sicily from Calabria. Instead, it has been argued that it derives from the proto-Italian Indo-European root “reg”, with the meaning of “chief, king”, referring to the promontory that dominated the panorama from the peninsula and which in ancient times constituted the natural harbor.

The ancient mouth of the Calopinace with the promontory of Punta Calamizzi that extended towards Sicily inspired Thucydides with words of great praise. The acroteri were the top decorations of the prestigious temples of Reggio, which in the pediment, at the three vertices, exhibited statues or images of powerful divinities, owners of the sanctuary.

The Athenian historian, Thucydides, wanted to immortalize in one sentence the beauty, grace and magnificence of the city of the strait, saying that Reggio stands as a final decoration of entire Greek Italy, overlooking its sea like a suggestive and dominant temple, as if it were the ” temple of Italy “.

Later in its history Reggio was a thriving city of Magna Graecia and subsequently an ally of Rome. Then it was one of the great metropolises of the Byzantine Empire and was under the Arabs, the Normans, the Swabians, the Angevins and the Aragonese. It was hit by a serious earthquake in 1783. It became part of the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and then passed to the Kingdom of Italy.

In 1908 it suffered the destruction of another terrible earthquake, then it was rebuilt in the Art Nouveau period but then partially damaged by the bombings of the Second World War. It grew considerably during the twentieth century but in the early 70s it was the protagonist of great regional upheavals, the consequences of which led to a dark twenty years from which, however, thanks to a series of successful administrations in recent decades, the city has notably recovered, going back to being, according to demographic, economic and tourist data, a protagonist in the Mediterranean panorama.

Bergamot citrus

Even today, the splendid Mediterranean and Greek lifestyle and its suggestive food and wine continue to spread their scent in Italy and abroad. Reggio is still famous for its legendary stylists, the Versace family, which is from here, with its constant references to Greek modus vivendi.

Reggio also emanates the intense scent of its rich gastronomy throughout the world through the centuries-old cultivation, production and sale of Bergamot, a mysterious and very fragrant citrus fruit, a fruit that grows only near Reggio and embodies all the mysterious essence of the Greek world and its incomparable and splendid spread throughout the world withi its soft and very strong perfume.